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About Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Moravia; between the ages of four and eighty-two his home was in Vienna: in 1938 Hitler's invasion of Austria forced him to seek asylum in London, where he died in the following year.
His career began with several years of brilliant work on the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. He was almost thirty when, after a period of study under Charcot in Paris, his interests first turned to psychology, and another ten years of clinical work in Vienna (at first in collaboration with Breuer, an older colleague) saw the birth of his creation, psychoanalysis. This began simply as a method of treating neurotic patients by investigating their minds, but it quickly grew into an accumulation of knowledge about the workings of the mind in general, whether sick or healthy. Freud was thus able to demonstrate the normal development of the sexual instinct in childhood and, largely on the basis of an examination of dreams, arrived at his fundamental discovery of the unconscious forces that influence our everyday thoughts and actions.
Freud's life was uneventful, but his ideas have shaped not only many specialist disciplines, but the whole intellectual climate of the last half-century.
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Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions [Edwin Abbott Abbott]
The Complete Aristotle [Aristotle]
The Art of Public Speaking [Dale Breckenridge Carnegie]
Eugenics and Other Evils [Gilbert Keith Chesterton]
Discourse on the Method [René Descartes]
The Golden Sayings of Epictetus [Epictetus]
Dream Psychology [Sigmund Freud]
Siddhartha [Hermann Hesse]
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion [David Hume]
Tao Te Ching [Laozi]
Fantasia of the Unconscious [David Herbert Lawrence]
The Art of War [Niccolò Machiavelli]
The Prince [Niccolò Machiavelli]
On Liberty [John Stuart Mill]
Utilitarianism [John Stuart Mill]
The Book of Five Rings [Musashi Miyamoto]
Utopia [Thomas More]
Thoughts are Things [Prentice Mulford]
Thus Spake Zarathustra [Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche]
Beyond Good and Evil [Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche]
The Antichrist par Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche]
Pantheism Its Story and Significance [J. Allanson Picton]
The Complete Plato [Plato]
Proposed Roads to Freedom [Bertrand Russell]
The Problems of Philosophy [Bertrand Russell]
Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays [Bertrand Russell]
The Art of War [Sun Tzu]
The Kama Sutra [Vatsyayana]
A Modern Utopia [H. G. Wells]
Here are the essential ideas of psychoanalytic theory, including Freud's explanations of such concepts as the Id, Ego and Super-Ego, the Death Instinct and Pleasure Principle, along with classic case studies like that of the Wolf Man.
Adam Phillips's marvellous selection provides an ideal overview of Freud's thought in all its extraordinary ambition and variety. Psychoanalysis may be known as the 'talking cure', yet it is also and profoundly, a way of reading. Here we can see Freud's writings as readings and listenings, deciphering the secrets of the mind, finding words for desires that have never found expression. Much more than this, however, The Penguin Freud Reader presents a compelling reading of life as we experience it today, and a way in to the work of one of the most haunting writers of the modern age.
Dreams, in Freud's view, are all forms of "wish fulfillment" — attempts by the unconscious to resolve a conflict of some sort, whether something recent or something from the recesses of the past (later in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud would discuss dreams which do not appear to be wish-fulfillment). Because the information in the unconscious is in an unruly and often disturbing form, a "censor" in the preconscious will not allow it to pass unaltered into the conscious. Freud introduced the term 'manifest content' to describe what the dream recalled.
During dreams, the preconscious is more lax in this duty than in waking hours, but is still attentive: as such, the unconscious must distort and warp the meaning of its information to make it through the censorship. As such, images in dreams are often not what they appear to be, according to Freud, and need deeper interpretation if they are to inform on the structures of the unconscious.
As Freud was focusing upon the biologic drives of the individual (a fact that alienated him from several colleagues of his like Breuer, Jung and Adler), he stated that when we observe a hollow object in our dreams, like a box or a cave, this is a symbol of a womb, while an elongated object is a symbol for penis. Due to these statements, Freud attracted much criticism from those who believed him a "sexist" or "misanthrope", as he was alleged to have overemphasised the role of instinct, as though he believed people were "wild beasts". Michael Jacob's later research into dreams has indicated that the manifest content may be more important than Freud allowed for and that such scientific study of dreams is more suited to the scientific study of dreams.
This volume brings together Freud's main contributions to the psychology of love. His illuminating discussions of the ways in which sexuality is always psychosexuality - that there is no sexuality without fantasy, conscious or unconscious - have changed the ways we think about erotic life. In these papers Freud develops his now famous theories about the sexuality of childhood and the transgressive nature of human desire.
In the famous case study of the eighteen-year-old 'Dora', we see Freud at work, both putting into practice and testing his sexual theories that were to change the modern world.
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One of Freud's central achievements was to demonstrate how unacceptable thoughts and feelings are repressed into the unconscious, from where they continue to exert a decisive influence over our lives.
This volume contains a key statement about evidence for the unconscious, and how it works, as well as major essays on all the fundamentals of mental functioning. Freud explores how we are torn between the pleasure principle and the reality principle, how we often find ways both to express and to deny what we most fear, and why certain men need fetishes for their sexual satisfaction. His study of our most basic drives, and how they are transformed, brilliantly illuminates the nature of sadism, masochism, exhibitionism and voyeurism.
The basic concept of Freud's work is that what works for civilization does not always work for man. Man is aggressive and selfish by nature, and he seeks self-satisfaction. However, his innate desires are stifled by civilisation. As a result, there is a pervasive and familiar sense of guilt.
• Dream Psychology
• Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex
• A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis
• A Young Girl's Diary
• Totem and Taboo
• Leonardo da Vinci: A Psychosexual Study of an Infantile Reminiscence
• Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse. EnglishSigmund Freud
• Reflections on War and Death
• Delusion and Dream: an Interpretation in the Light of Psychoanalysis of Gradiva
Beyond the Pleasure Principle, published in 1920, by world-renowned psychologist Sigmund Freud, marks a major turning point in the author's theoretical approach. Prior to this work, Freud's examination of the forces that drive people focused primarily on the sexual drive, or Eros of man, the life instinct to reproduce that is innate in all humans. Freud had attributed most of human behavior to the seeking of sexual pleasure. In reasoned progression he outlined core psychoanalytic concepts, such as repression, free association and libido.
One of Freud's most controversial and influential works, 'Beyond the Pleasure Principle' remains an important and fascinating read. The concept also helped link Western psychoanalysis with Eastern perspectives on life and death making this book essential reading for students of psychology history and literature.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is one of the twentieth century's greatest minds and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. His many works include 'The Ego and the Id', 'An Outline of Psycho-Analysis', Civilization and Its Discontent, and others.
He was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis. Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881, and then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy at the Vienna General Hospital. He was appointed a university lecturer in neuropathology in 1885 and became a professor in 1902.
In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression as well as for elaboration of his theory of the unconscious as an agency disruptive of conscious states of mind.
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