It seems like I either got a defective or fake cartridge. After setup, the pages came out ok for about a month. I printed a total of maybe 20 pages. Then it started fading and skipping lines until it didn't work at all, after I tried everything to clean and otherwise enable the cartridge. I contacted HP support and they couldn't help me, suggesting it might be a fake cartridge. Now I need to buy a new one. Not sure how you're supposed to tell if it's genuine considering I can't tell at all the difference between them, visually.
EDIT: After contacting Amazon customer service, they offered a refund. Still an unfortunate situation but at least I got the help I needed.